This sector includes the physical or chemical transformation of materials, substances, or components into new products, although this is not the only universal criterion for defining manufacturing (see remark on processing of waste below). The materials, substances, or components transformed are raw materials that are products of agriculture, forestry, fishing, mining or quarrying as well as products of other manufacturing activities. Substantial alteration, renovation or reconstruction of goods is generally considered to be manufacturing.
The output of a manufacturing process may be finished in the sense that it is ready for utilization or consumption, or it may be semi-finished as it may become an input for further manufacturing. For example, the output of alumina refining is the input used in the primary production of aluminium.
Assembly of the component parts of manufactured products is considered manufacturing. This includes the assembly of manufactured products from either self-produced or purchased components (adapted from International Standard Industrial Classification of All Economic Activities (ISIC), Revision 4, Part 3, Section C).
Water resources and water pollution
Water resources are natural sources of water that occur on the Earth that are of potential use to humans. Safe drinking water and adequate sanitation and hygiene are fundamental to the protection of people's health. However, this crucial-for-life resource is being contaminated and wasted. According to the World Bank, there are currently 2.1 billion people who do not have access to safely managed water and 844 million who do not have a basic drinking water supply. Given that the fresh water resources are limited, but will be needed much more in the future, ensuring access to safe drinking water and adequate sanitation for everyone, everywhere, directly contributes to achieving good health and wellbeing (The World Bank, 2018).
Textile waste water
Sustainable consumption refers to 'the use of services and related products, which respond to basic needs and bring a better quality of life while minimizing the use of natural resources and toxic materials, as well as the emissions of waste and pollutants over the lifecycle of the service or product, so as not to jeopardize the needs of further generations' (UNEP, 2010). Sustainable consumption is not just about buying more sustainable products, but also refers to ways of living that improve upon mainstream consumption practices.