This sector includes general construction and specialized construction activities for buildings and civil engineering works. It includes new work, repair, additions and alterations, the erection of prefabricated buildings or structures on a site as well as construction of a temporary nature.
General construction is the construction of entire dwellings, office buildings, stores and other public and utility buildings, farm buildings etc., or the construction of civil engineering works such as motorways, streets, bridges, tunnels, railways, airfields, harbours and other water projects, irrigation systems, sewerage systems, industrial facilities, pipelines and electric lines, sports facilities etc. Also included is the repair of buildings and engineering works (adapted from International Standard Industrial Classification of All Economic Activities (ISIC), Revision 4, Part 3, Section F).
Buildings, asphalt and concrete absorb solar energy, that ultimately results in the emission of long-wave radiation that heats the air in cities. Cities also use large amounts of energy and emit this energy as waste heat, adding to the urban ‘heat island effect’, causing the temperature in urban areas to be higher than surrounding rural areas (Jean-Philippe & Hubbard, 2015). Elevated temperatures from urban ‘heat islands’ can affect a community’s environment and quality of life. While some impacts may be beneficial, such as lengthening a plant's growing season, the majority of the impacts are negative.
Green technology is a type of technology that is environmentally friendly. Its main purpose is to conserve nature, tackle problems related to the depletion of natural resources and to repair the negative impact of human activities, such as pollution and environmental degradation. The term ‘green technology’ is also known as ‘environmental technology’ or ‘clean technology’. These technologies are used in various aspects of our lives: from renewable energy and power storage, smart building innovations, green living technology, to smart transportation and mobility, waste management and recycling (Dasy, 2016; Babbitt, 2017).
Sustainable innovation is a process whereby sustainability considerations (environmental, social and economic) are integrated into all company processes from idea generation through to research and development (R&D) and commercialization. It can be applied to products, services and technologies, as well as new business and organization models (Charter, 2007). Sustainable innovation is a new and evolving area that also relates to eco-innovation, which is any form of innovation that makes significant and proven progress towards the goal of sustainable development, by reducing impacts on the environment or by achieving a more efficient and responsible use of natural resources, including energy (Competitiveness and Innovation Framework, 2007 to 2013).
Clean air – SMOG FREE PROJECT
Energy conservation and efficiency
Energy efficiency involves using technology that requires less energy to perform the same function. For example, a light-emitting diode (LED) light bulb or a compact fluorescent light (CFL) bulb needs less energy than an incandescent light bulb. Energy conservation, on the other hand, is any behavior that results in the use of less energy, such as turning lights off when leaving a room and recycling aluminum cans (aluminum production requires a lot energy). If we want to preserve the Earth’s resources for the future and cut costs, the conservation of energy and energy efficiency both play an important role in sustainability issues.